Anti-bacterial effects of chewing sticks on periodontal pathogens

Document Type : Original Article


1 Science Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Science, Biological Sciences Unit, The Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki

2 Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

3 Department of Zoology, Parasitology Unit, University of Ibadan,Nigeria

4 Department of Microbiology, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki

5 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. Genetics and Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Botany, University of Ibadan

6 Department Of science Laboratory Technology, Microbiology Unit The Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki


From antiquity, several plants with reported effectiveness against periodontal pathogens, and have oral acidogenic effect against bacteria responsible for dental caries and dental plaque is as old as man. The present study focused on the antibacterial activities of the root of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf), Fagara xanthoxyloides, Prosopis africana (mesquite) and Anogesissus leiocarpus were all collected from Saki, Nigeria. The chewing stick were washed, shaded dried for 7 days according to the standard procedure. Five consented individuals, supra-gingival plaques were cultured and subjected to the antibacterial assessment by preparing of the aqueous extracts of the chewing sticks. The test organisms included Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella spp which were isolated from consented individuals. All the isolated periodontal strains were inhibited at 2% concentrations of all aqueous extracts except the Klebsiella which was inhibited at 8% to 16% concentration of A. indica. Both P. africana and V. amygdalina had no inhibitory effect on Klebsiella at all concentrations. Only A. indica at 8% and 16% had noticeable inhibition on Klebsiella. At 2%, 4%, 8% and 16%, Acacia gum showed remarkable antibacterial activity against Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and E. coli. Fagara xanthoxyloides and Anogesissus leiocarpus were the most efficacious among all the tested chewing stick. In conclusion, the tested chewing sticks were effective as antibacterial agents against all the tested organisms.


Main Subjects