Pharmaceutical products microbial contamination; approaches of detection and avoidance

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Clinical Lab Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq

2 Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom


Pharmaceutical products’ microbial contamination is a serious worry in the pharmaceutical industry, as it can posture momentous health jeopardies to patients. Contamination with microbes can befall at any stage of manufacturing, starting with raw materials and ending with the finished products. It can also result from a variety of sources counting the environment, working personnel and equipment used. Common microorganisms that contaminate pharmaceutical products include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The presence of these contaminants can compromise the quality, safety, and efficacy of pharmaceutical products, leading to product recalls, loss of reputation, and financial losses. Therefore, it is essential for pharmaceutical manufacturers to implement robust quality control measures to detect and prevent microbial contamination, including stringent cleaning and sanitation procedures, environmental monitoring, and microbiological testing. In this review, we discussed the main conventional and advanced technologies of detecting microbial contamination in pharmaceutical products. These techniques range from conventional culture methods to the more sophisticated technologies of gene sequencing and spectroscopy.


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