One health approach in the fight against yellow fever in Nigeria

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Public and Allied Health, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria

2 Epidemiology Laboratory, Diagnostic & Outstation Makurdi, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria

3 Department of Virology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria

4 Biology Unit, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria

5 Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical laboratory science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Sokoto, Nigeria

6 Department of Microbiology, Ministry of Defense, Kwara, Nigeria

7 Medbury Medical Services, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria

8 Microbiology Department, Federal Medical Centre Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

9 Department of Biomedical Science, School of Applied Science, University of Brighton, London, United Kingdom

10 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Texas A&M School of Public Health, 212 Adriance Lab Rd, College Station, TX 77843, United States of America

11 Department of Medical Microbiology, National Orthopaedic Hospital, Dala, Kano, Nigeria

12 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Aro, Abeokuta, Nigeria

13 Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria


Yellow fever (YF) remains a significant public health concern in Nigeria, with sporadic outbreaks causing considerable morbidity and mortality. This zoonotic viral disease is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes, posing a constant threat to human populations. Although vaccination efforts have been ongoing for years, outbreaks still occur, underscoring the need for a comprehensive approach to combat YF. In Nigeria, adopting a One Health approach is imperative for effective yellow fever control. This approach recognizes the intricate interplay between human health, animal health, and the environment. Key strategies include the implementation of travel advisories, widespread vaccination campaigns, and early detection and reporting of cases. Surveillance efforts extend to both human and non-human primate populations to monitor the circulation of the virus accurately. Community engagement plays a vital role in this approach, with local communities actively participating in efforts to eliminate mosquito breeding sites. Integrated mosquito management techniques, such as the use of insecticides and repellents, are promoted alongside community-led interventions to reduce breeding grounds, such as removing stagnant water. By embracing the principles of One Health and implementing coordinated efforts across regions within Nigeria, we can strive towards the eradication of yellow fever. This holistic approach holds the potential to mitigate the burden of disease and pave the way for a future free from the threat of yellow fever outbreaks in Nigeria.



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