Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for hepatitis B and C virus infections: Salmonella serovars in participants’ blood samples in Uyo, Nigeria

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Uyo, P.M.B.1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State

3 ANHi/Excellence Community Education Welfare Scheme, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria


Background: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) pose a significant global public health threat. Aim: Seroprevalence of HBV and HCV infections, the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella serovars in participants’ blood samples. Method: The HBV and HCV infection among 150 participants and co-infection with Salmonella serovars were determined using the HBsAg and HCV Test Strips and standard bacteriological method, respectively. The antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella serovars was determined using the disc diffusion technique. Results: Of the 150 blood samples collected, 11.3% were HBsAg-positive and 5.3% were HCV-positive. Logistic regression indicated that a higher likelihood of HBV infection was associated with educational status (OR, 10.909; p = 0.0002) and place of residence (OR, 3.082; p = 0.037). There was no significant relationship between the HCV-positive and HCV-negative participants based on sociodemographic at p ≥ 0.05. The results showed 5.33% with HBV infection only, 6.0% with HBV-Salmonella spp. co-infection, 2.66% with HCV only, and 1.33%, 0.66%, and 0.66% positive for HCV-S. typhi, HCV-S. paratyphi, and HCV-S. enteritidis, respectively. S. typhi were highly sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Augmentin, and Streptomycin (≥ 83.3%); S. paratyphi exhibited resistance to Gentamycin and Cotrimoxazole; S. typhimurium Sty-HB53 was resistant to Pefloxacin and Cefalexin; S. enteritidis were Augmentin-resistant; and 61.5% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant strains. Conclusions: The study has shown the need for routine checks of Salmonella spp. in the blood of individuals with HBV and HCV infections and to advocate for public health measures to minimize the transmission of these pathogens.


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