Microbial and biochemical changes in fermentation of Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds.

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.

2 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

3 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria


Background: Daddawa is a condiment produced locally and used by populace to help substitute for highly expensive protein sources. The raw materials used, production, and processing methods varies with locations. The microbes involved in fermentation can be normal fermenter or pathogenic. This study aimed to determine the microbial and biochemical changes as well as optimal duration for the process of ‘Daddawa’ production. Methods: Microbial isolation and identification were conducted using standard methods, quantitative determination of antinutritional components (Tannins and Oxalates), proteins, carbohydrates, amino acids and total titrable acidity of the condiment was also conducted. Results: The results identified the presence of four microbial species, two of which are fermenters (Lactobacillus spp and Streptococcus Lactis) and two pathogenic (Pseudomonas Aerignosa and Proteus spp). The study recorded a significant increase in total titrable acidity (30-70%) at early hours (0-12hrs), and decreases upon completion of the fermentation process (70-40%). The level of antinutritional components (tannins and oxalates) increases at the late hour (60-72hrs) of the fermentation period (1.7 mg/ml and 33.5 mg/100ml) compared to the initial time (1.3 mg/ml and 22.5 mg/100ml) of the fermentation. The levels of protein, amino acids and reducing sugar quantitatively analysed were statistically significant (p < 0.05) between initial and late hours of the fermentation period. Conclusion: The findings of this study have established the optimum time for higher nutrients deposition in Daddawa during fermentation period and as well documented high nutrient deposition during the mid-hours (48 hr) of the fermentation period.


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