Identification and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of multidrug resistant bacteria causing surgical site infections in Suez Canal University Hospitals in Egypt

Document Type : Original Article


1 Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Arish University, Egypt.

2 Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt.


Background: Surgical Site infections (SSIs) are a major postoperative complication, impacting patients and healthcare systems on a global scale. The rise and prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR) play a significant role in developing SSIs that pose a significant challenge. The aim of the study was to identify the types and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MDR bacteria causing SSIs in Suez Canal University Hospitals (SCUHs).  Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study included eighty wound swabs were collected from patients underwent surgical procedures and suspected to have SSIs. Bacterial growth was identified by conventional methods such as Gram staining, culture on suitable media, and biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and broth microdilution minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods.  Results: The prevalence of MDR in SCUHs was 68.9%; 37.8% were MDR, and 31.1% were extensively drug-resistant (XDR). MDR/XDR isolates were 51.6% Gram-positive and 48.4% Gram-negative. Most of the MDR isolates were S. aureus (64.7%), and most of the XDR isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae (42.8%). Gram-positive isolates were most resistant to cefoxitin (100%), followed by gentamicin and tetracycline (92.9%) and were most sensitive to vancomycin (100%), levofloxacin (85.7%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol (76.9%). Gram-negative isolates were most resistant to cefoxitin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and cephalosporins (100%), followed by meropenem (92.9%) and aztreonam (92.3%), and were most sensitive to chloramphenicol (81.8%), followed by gentamicin (35.7%). Conclusions: Multidrug-resistant bacteria represent a considerable health problem at SCUHs. Vancomycin, levofloxacin, and gentamicin can be good choices as empirical treatments for MDR bacteria in SSI infections.


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