Assessment of virulence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of money microbiome in Akure, Nigeria

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Akure, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria


Background: Naira notes can serve as vehicles for enhancing the transmission of microbial agents to and among humans. Microbial contamination of naira notes can be from counting machines, atmosphere, skin, wounds, nasal secretion and aerosol generated when sneezing or coughing. Therefore, this study investigated the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and virulence of bacterial isolates from naira notes in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: Previously isolated bacteria from naira notes were collected from the Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates was determined using the disc diffusion method and interpreted according to CLSI standard. Results: The test bacterial isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium diphtheria, Enterobacter ludwigii, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The highest multidrug resistance index was obtained with B. subtilis and S. typhi (both 0.75) while the least multidrug resistance index was obtained with B. cereus (0.33). High resistance was observed against trimethoprim, meropenem, ampicillin, penicillin, doripenem and cefuroxime, while minimal resistance was observed against ofloxacin and no resistance was observed against gentamicin and ertapenem. Conclusion: This study revealed that multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present on naira notes. The findings indicate that naira notes are carriers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which may be easily disseminated by handling and ingestion.


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