Interactions between T-cells and B-cells in the microbiological and histopathological mechanisms of peri-implantitis development

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Basic Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

2 Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, College of Medicine, University of Al-Iraqia, Iraq


Background:  Peri-implantitis is a pathological disease characterized by the presence of inflammatory osteolysis in the vicinity of dental implants. The comprehension of the microbiology and histopathology of the subject is crucial for its efficient management. This condition encompasses an intricate biofilm like the one seen in periodontal disease, yet with discernible bacteria profiles. Histopathological investigation at an advanced level provides significant insights into the shape of bones and the process of osseointegration, hence contributing valuable information about the course of diseases. Aim: The present review aims to consolidate existing literature on the identification of microorganisms and the histopathological characteristics associated with peri-implantitis. It elucidates the significant involvement of T-cells and B-cells in the immunological response to this condition. In this review, we examine the ramifications pertaining to the diagnostic, treatment, and public health domain, with a particular emphasis on the imperative nature of infection control measures and the development of novel therapeutic strategies that selectively target distinct immunological pathways. The significance of having a complete knowledge of peri-implantitis from several perspectives is emphasized in this review, as it has the potential to enhance clinical practice and improve patient care within the field of dentistry.


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