Human infection caused by the avian influenza type A virus: A comprehensive update on its pathogenesis and recommendation for future re-occurrence

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life sciences, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria

2 Department of Chemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.

3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B 06, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

4 Department of Biotechnology, Nigeria Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria.

5 Department of Microbiology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.

6 Department of Microbiology, Delta State University, P.M.B 1, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria.

7 Department of Microbiology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P.M.B 2076, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

8 Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

9 Department of Biomedical laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

10 Faculty of College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

11 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Nigeria Nsukka, 410001, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria


The emergence and re-emergence of the avian influenza virus in humans, particularly the A (H5) sub-types, have persistently presented a substantial danger to human well-being. Interestingly, the avian influenza virus has remained important despite various studies on the mechanism of inter-species transmission. In part, this is due to the insufficient understanding of the virus’ pathogenesis, the diagnostic challenges, and the limited knowledge about the virus’ genetic makeup, which enables it to keep evolving. Given the devastating nature of this disease and the possibility of the virus triggering a pandemic, this review aims to evaluate the current strains of Type A (H5) avian influenza virus, to better understand the mechanism of its interactions with humans, and to address critical questions related to its epidemiology. We further explored the factors contributing to the severity of the infection, which may improve the diagnosis and therapeutic options employed in the treatment of this disease.


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