Distribution of resistance genes encoding Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) in Proteus mirabilis species isolated from selected Hospitals in Jigawa State, Nigeria

Document Type : Original Article


1 Federal medical center birnin kudu Jigawa state

2 Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State

3 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Igbinedion University okada, Edo State

4 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Afe Babalola University Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State (ABUAD)

5 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Igbinedion University Okada, Edo State

6 department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University Owo, Ondo State

7 Department of Microbiology, Ladoke Akintola University Ogbomoso, Oyo State


Background and rationale:  The routine use of antibiotics in both medicine and veterinary medicine has led to widespread antibiotic resistance and development of antibiotic resistance genes, especially in Gram-negative organisms. The aim of this study was to identify the beta-lactamase TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes in clinical isolates of Proteus species from selected hospitals in Jigawa state, Northwest Nigeria. Methods: One hundred and ninety-one (191) bacterial isolates of Proteus species were obtained from wound swabs, urine, ear swabs, high vaginal swabs/endo-cervical swabs, sputum, aspirates from patients attending four major hospitals in Jigawa state (Hadeija General Hospital, Dutse General Hospital, Rasheed Shekoni Specialist Hospital Dutse (RSSH) and Federal Medical Centre, Birnin-kudu (FMC)) between November, 2021 to August, 2022. Resistance genes blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results:  Out of 191 Proteus species isolated 153 were Proteus mirabilis while 38 were Proteus vulgaris and 18 Proteus mirabilis were identify as ESBL producer using DDST. Of all the 18 Proteus mirabilis, 16 were positive for Bla-TEM, 11 Bla-CTX-M and 5 Bla-SHV genes. While 2 Proteus mirabilis had no resistance genes. 5(8.8%) had all the three genes. The prevalence of Bla-TEM, Bla-CTX-M and Bla -SHV genes among ESBL producing Proteus mirabilis isolates in this study was 84.2%, 57.9% and 26.3% respectively. However, statistics did not reveal any significant difference in expression of all the resistance genes (Bla-TEM, Bla-CTX-M, Bla-SHV) with respect to location of study (p> 0.05). Conclusions: This study established the presence of resistance genes in ESBL producing Proteus mirabilis using molecular PCR method and Bla-TEM and Bla-CTX-M were the most common. Therefore, routine laboratory detection of ESBL production in Proteus species is advocated.


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