Phenotypic detection of multi-drug and extensively drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients in Kaduna State, North West Nigeria

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

2 Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria


Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading infectious diseases that cause death worldwide; the emergence of drug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis is of great concern for TB control programme in Nigeria. Aim and objective: To detect multi-drug and extensively drug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients in Kaduna State North west Nigeria. Study design: This was a cross sectional study among tuberculosis patients attending directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) clinics in the three (3) senatorial districts of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Materials and methods: A total of 360 presumptive drug resistant tuberculosis patients’ samples were collected and decontaminated using modified Petroff method (NaOH-Na-citrate-NALC) from August 2018 to December 2020. Drug susceptibility testing was performed on first- and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs for the 305 confirmed MTBC isolates using Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) proportion method. Results: A total of 67(21.8%) isolates were pan-susceptible, 176(57.5%) isolates were MDR-TB, rifampicin and isoniazid mono-resistant were 46(15.1%) and 17(5.6%) respectively. For the second line drugs, a total of 271(80.22%) isolates were found to be pan-susceptible and 35(19.88%) isolates were pre-extensively drug resistant TB. Conclusions: These findings established higher prevalence of MDR-TB and pre-extensively resistant TB in Kaduna state.


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