Prevalence of malaria and typhoid fever co-infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Microbiology, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria

2 Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria

3 Federal Medical Center, Lokoja, Nigeria


Background: Malaria and typhoid fever are among the most common infectious diseases in Nigeria and other developing countries where opportunities for transmission are wide-ranging. In pregnancy, concurrent infection by malaria and typhoid fever has significant clinical and public health implications such as spontaneous abortion and mortality. This study determined the prevalence of malaria, typhoid fever co-infection, and socio-demographic determinant among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Anyigba, Kogi State. Method: Blood samples from 100 consented pregnant women were screened for malaria parasite using CareStart rapid malaria diagnostic test kit and Giemsa-stained thick film microscopy while typhoid fever etiology was assessed using a commercial Widal agglutination test kit. Result: Of the 100 pregnant women screened, 19(40%) had malaria, 23(47%) had typhoid fever and 6(13%) had co-infection. Prevalence of malaria in pregnant women was high in the age group 25-29 years 10(52.6%), trader 7(36.8%), secondary education 8(42.1%), and people from rural areas 12(63.2%). Similarly, a high prevalence of typhoid was found among ages 25-29years 9(39.1%), traders 13(56.5%), secondary education 15(65.2%), and rural residents 16(69.6%). Also, co-infection was high among women with age 25-29 years 2(33.3%), trader 3(50%), secondary education 3(50%), and women from rural areas 4(66.7%). However, neither malaria, typhoid nor their co-infection was significantly associated with any of the above factors (p < /em>>0.05). Similarly, putative risk factors such as (residential areas with bushes, stagnant water, use of mosquito net or spray, source of drinking water, and food intake) were not significantly associated with the infections (p < /em>>0.05). Conclusion: Findings from the current study suggest both malaria and typhoid remain a disease of public health concern in pregnancy in the study area. Considering the adverse effects of both diseases on pregnancy and associated sequelae, there is a need for more efforts toward its prevention, control, and management.


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