Epidemiology and risk factors of oral candidisis among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Edo State University, Uzairue. Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada. Nigeria

2 Department of biological sciences, igbinedion university okada, Nigeria

3 Department of Medical laboratory science, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kwara State University, Nigeria

4 National Health Insurance Services, Federal Medical Centre, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria


Background: Oral candidiasis has proven to be endemic amongst people infected with HIV/AIDS. The initial symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are accompanied by other diseases which indicate a suppressed immune system. In this study, an epidemiological survey was conducted on HIV positive patients who visited Kwara state general hospital, Kwara state specialist hospital, Civil service hospital and Cottage hospital, Ilorin. Methods: Oral swabs were collected and cultured for the isolation and characterization of Candida and speciation of isolates were done using Chromagar Candida. The socio-demographic and clinical data of the HIV patients were obtained using a structured researcher-administered questionnaire and were correlated with presence or absence of oral candidiasis. Results: Out of a total of the 300 HIV positive patients, 40 (13.4%) yielded growth of Candida species with distribution of Candida albicans 20(6.7%), Candida tropicalis 6(2.0%), Candida krusei 6(2.0%), Candida glabrata 2(0.7%) and a mixed growth of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis 6(2.0%).  Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 and significance level were set at p < /em>=Conclusion: The study revealed that Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata were the species causing oral candidiasis among people living with HIV/AIDS. An overall oral candidiasis prevalence of 13.4% was observed among the studied population.


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