Malaria endemicity in sub-saharan Africa: Past and present issues in public health

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria Kaduna State Nigeria

2 Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria

3 Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ogun State, Nigeria

4 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Nigeria NSUKKA

5 Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

6 Department of Microbiology, Delta State University, Abraka Nigeria

7 Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria NSUKKA


World Health Organization (WHO) reported an estimated 241 million malaria cases with nearly half of the world’s population at risk in 2020. Since time immemorial, malaria has been one of the most endemic parasitic diseases, which has caused a great menace to public health. This infectious disease has spread worldwide, with a cumulative mortality rate. Despite the significant developments in the healthcare sector, parasitic infectious diseases still exist, causing life-threatening diseases and leading to high mortality and morbidity rates worldwide. This review article discussed malaria as a public health endemic infection in general while exposing the associated past and present issues. This is done using articles published in peer-reviewed journals.
The endemic nature of malaria was investigated through the past and present issues in its prevalence, multiple causative agents and epidemiological survey. Its morbidity and mortality rate, especially in Africa, where poverty and many other favorable conditions have proven it life-threatening and a serious public health concern. Investigation on the report of various drug resistance to malaria treatment, wide association with other infectious diseases which could aggravate malaria pathogenicity and pose a threat on diagnosis; culminate into a more threat. However, the investigation into various management, prevention and control practices in many African countries has given a glimpse of hope in mitigating endemic malaria.


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