Virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: The arms race between bacteria and humans

Document Type : Correspondence


Medical Laboratory Technology Department, College of Medical Technology, The Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq


Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a Gram-negative, motile bacillus that can grow at 42°C as well as 37°C in aerobic circumstances. It also tests positive for oxidase and catalase enzymes.The bacteria may be found in a variety of habitats, including water and soil.  It is also considered an opportunistic human pathogen which has the capacity to causes infection especially in individuals with immunocompromised systemand also can be present in hospital climate.
P. aeruginosa has several virulence factors that play a role in pathogenesis in the host, including type IV pili, which are found near the cell poleand flagella.It also releases exopolysaccharide alginate, which is utilized to build biofilm. Lipases and phospholipases, which target lipids in the surfactant and host cell membranes, are further pathogenic agents of the bacteria.As well as exoenzymes S, T, U, and Y. P. aeruginosa also produces extracellular virulence factors such as elastase, toxin A, rhamnolipids, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and protease. These factors may be shared by other pathogens and may contribute directly or indirectly in resistance to multiple antibacterial agents.


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